Foreign missionary work. It’s a pretty unpopular concept these days. Missionaries are associated with all the damage wrought by the project of subjugation, exploitation, displacement, and genocide of native peoples and cultures across the world. The criticisms are well-founded.
Retrospect is a tricky thing though. History is often tainted by a touch of arrogance and a total lack of appreciation for how complex, messy, and nuanced real people and situations actually are. We have a tendency to think that people were ignorant “back then.” We “know better now.” This is an idea that we like because it feeds our whole complex about “progress”… it makes us feel like we are better and smarter than those naïve people who preceded us (…but oh, wait, that’s also an idea of Western imperialism…woops!).
One of the best cures for the claims of revisionist history is a consultation with the archives. While working with the Missionary Research Library Archives at Burke Library I processed MRL12: Personnel Policies of Foreign Mission Boards Records, a collection of 500 completed questionnaires that had been distributed in 1950 to former missionaries.
The information they collected from these missionaries includes:
-their personal data (age, gender, field location, years of service, missionary task)
-how they came to the decision to enter missionary service
-what (if any) training they received before entering the field
-whether their provisions, salaries, and living arrangements were sufficient
-whether the support they got from their board was adequate
-what effect the experience had on their Christian faith and their belief in missionary work
-their reasons for leaving
Missionaries of the 19th and 20th centuries: Who were they?
So who were the foreign missionaries from the 19th and 20th century, and how did they understand the work they were doing? Were they really the offensively ignorant, racist, arrogant, condescending bunch that we often imagine them to be? Or were they actually in many cases humble, compassionate, self-aware, and even critical of foreign missions boards and those in power?
As usual, the answer is, both. I certainly came across a number questionnaires that included absurdly myopic statements about “heathens.” Some of them actually made me cringe. But many of the missionaries sounded basically the same as people today: conflicted, confused, and frustrated with the shortcomings of their relationships and the limitations of the situations they find themselves in, but still hopeful, generally well-intentioned, and striving in the best way they know how to achieve positive outcomes. Shocking, I know.
Looking through these survey questionnaires, I was really interested to discover that the most common concerns expressed by missionaries were imperialism, top-down policies, outmoded paradigms, bigotry, and paternalism. These concerns obviously serve as evidence to substantiate the criticisms of foreign missionary work, but they also reveal how many individuals were fully aware of, and attempting to do positive work in spite of, the problems posed by imperialism. The voices of these missionaries serve as some of the most arresting indictments of missionary work. Ironically, it seems that the original postcolonial critics were colonizers themselves.
In Their Own Words
“Christianity must be de-Westernized,” insisted one respondent. “We must serve people of other lands as Christ served those around him. We must divest ourselves of Western materialism.” Another wrote emphatically, “Many missionaries are the worst type of colonial. We should learn to live Christianity before we shove it down somebody else’s throat.”
One missionary in South Africa from 1919-1947 was convinced that “without Christian schools and churches the African would have been dominated by whites much more than they are.”
“With better understanding and appreciation of other religions,” wrote one man, “I am still convinced that Christianity is the ultimate answer to all the hopes and aspirations of the best in every faith. My concept of ‘heathen’ and ‘non-Christian’ has changed to that of ‘friend’ and ‘seeker after truth’.”
Foreign Missionary Record #1600. Credit to MRL12: Personnel Policies of Foreign Mission Boards Records, box 5, folder 6, The Burke Library Archives (Columbia University Libraries) at Union Theological Seminary, New York.
“Imperialism has gone out of style and was always contrary to the Gospel. Our task is to transmit the Gospel unfettered and cluttered with our culture. The task of the church is not to crossfertilize cultures. We carry too much baggage with us. Jesus had nowhere to lay his head. Professionalism has killed all creativity in missions.” –former missionary in Mexico 1951-1953. Record #0757
“Foreign missionaries usually have negative attitude toward other religions, typically bigoted and intolerant. As I learned to appreciate Indian cultures and Indian religions I saw that the whole philosophy of the missionary movement is alien to my understanding of Christ’s teachings.” –former missionary in India 1923-1941. Record #1225
“Too many missionaries are paternalistic. Too many equate Christianity with Americanism. Too few are really identified as Jesus was with the common people as one of them. There is too little appreciation for the fact that missionaries can receive as well as give. I went with the idea I was to help poor heathens. China had a culture that was old before America was born. I learned that after I lived there. From the beginning, I resented along with my students foreign gunboats and other imperialistic demonstrations of foreign powers, including my own country.” –former missionary in China 1921-1938. Record #1383
For further information related to this project, please see The Hidden Archival Collections of the Burke Library blog.